Angela Person

Success In Life

Self-Aware Student

Introduction 00

This report is designed to help Angela be more successful at life outside of school.  The report sections cover different aspects of being successful at life and should help Angela understand the opportunities and threats that affect her success.  One important focus of this report on what kinds of career environments should feel great for Angela and how she can be successful when working with others.


Quick Instructions for Angela

1) Read the report

As you read the report, note down places where it talks about the sorts of challenges you are facing right now.

2) Write down three important insights

Pick three items from the report that seem really important for your life right now.  This could be because this is something that is causing you stress now.  It could be a strength that would really help you cope with stress or enjoy your life more.  Or it could be important to you for other reasons.

3) Write out a plan for what you can do based on your insights 

Determine what actions you can take over the next month to make use of what you’ve learned about yourself.  What actions can you take to reduce your stress?  How might you develop your strengths?  Who can you talk to?  Who can help you stay on track? 

Career and Work Satisfaction 01

This section uses your personality type to help illustrate what sort of work environments and core values suit you best.

In this section, you will see how your personality type represents the values you hold and how that coincides with which working environments will fit you best.  Finding a career that aligns with your values and provides a suitable environment for your personality type will lead to a more fulfilling and productive career.

Work environmental and cultural factors preferred by Angela

Aligning her work environment and the company’s culture with her personality type is also another important consideration in finding the right job. Her personality type prefers an environment where:

  • Management allows people to be self directed
  • The environment and culture gives you opportunities to think through your ideas by talking about them
  • The atmosphere allows you to be warm and caring and to build strong interpersonal relationships
  • The environment allows for freedom and flexibility and is loosely structured without too many rules

Work that aligns well with Angela

  • The work involves theory and speculation
  • The work involves creativity, imagination and a creative approach to problem solving
  • The work involves looking beyond the present i.e., future possibilities, future products, future actions
  • The work is not limited to what exists today but involves "what may be" and "what could be"
  • The work itself is personally meaningful and has value
  • Decisions and actions at work are in sync with your personal values

Those with Angela's personality prefer careers where

  • Management allows people to be self-directed
  • The work offers the opportunity to rapidly change direction and to respond to problems as they arise
  • The work is fun and allows for some spontaneity
  • The work allows you the opportunity to work with and meet a wide variety of people, rather than working alone most of the time
  • The work moves at a rapid, exciting pace
  • The environment and culture gives you opportunities to think through your ideas by talking about them
  • The job is action oriented and provides for a wide variety of activities rather than being highly focused on a few tasks
  • The atmosphere allows you to be warm and caring and to build strong interpersonal relationships
  • The environment allows for freedom and flexibility and is loosely structured without too many rules

Natural abilities and strengths for Angela's personality

Angela's natural abilities and talents, when utilized, help her to perform better and enjoy her job more. Also, her success is generally more dependent on leveraging and capitalizing on her strong points rather than focusing on her weak point - it's her strong points and natural abilities that will bring Angela job satisfaction and success.

Angela has probably already experienced something like this: When the work she does in her job or in school aligns well with her natural abilities, things start to go easier, move more smoothly, and she feels better about what she is working on or studying. The results usually come out much better.

The opposite is also true, when the work she does or the subject she is studying is not well aligned with her natural abilities, things feel more difficult, stress levels increase and results are not so good. The key here is 'alignment'.

Because most professional jobs involve several different types of work, some of the work she does may be well aligned and some may not. If she can move herself into a career path where most of the work is aligned with her natural abilities, she will be more successful and more satisfied

  • Natural diplomatic skills
  • Natural skills when it comes to using words, both spoken and written
  • Natural skills in the area of strategy and planning
  • Natural ability to mentor, advise, teach and counsel others
  • Natural ability to help others especially in a self-improvement aspect
  • Natural strengths when it comes to studying humanities and literature
  • Naturally altruistic and concerned for the greater good
  • Natural ability to be a catalyst for change
  • Natural ability to be an advocate for change
  • Natural ability to train and facilitate

Angela's likely core values include:

For maximum job satisfaction and success, her job and her work environment should align with her core values. The list below represents common core values for her personality type.

  • Harmonious, caring relationships
  • Strong personal relationships
  • Cooperative and empathetic relationships
  • Personal growth
  • Self-actualization
  • Integrity
  • Having a unique identity
  • Originality
  • Creativity
  • Minimal tension
  • Rewards and recognition are for helping people and achieving one's full potential
  • Work must have meaning that is aligned with one's values
  • Search for the meaning of existence
  • Altruistic, benevolent towards others
  • Being authentic and genuine
  • Being enthusiastic
  • Possibilities
Career and Work Satisfaction Authors
Original work by: Michael Robinson © Step Research Corporation

Essential Motivator Roles 02

Your preferred roles based on your essential motivator

Preferred Roles With Opportunities

More Angela

Less Angela


Angela Prefers A Role With Opportunity For:

  • Feeling unique or special
  • Having a purpose or meaning
  • Making a difference

Less Angela


  • Fun, freedom and variety
  • Doing it with style
  • Making an impact


  • Achieving concrete results
  • Taking responsibility
  • Belonging and contributing


  • Being competent and curious
  • Having intellectual independence
  • Finding a better way
Essential Motivator Roles Authors
Original work by: Susan Nash © Step Research Corporation

Leader Strengths and Struggles 03

This section shows your likely strengths and struggles as a leader



This is where Angela likely starts when interacting with the world. The Primary or Dominant behavior.


Pioneering, Transformative Catalyst

Likely Strengths

  • Brainstorming; engaging others; developing ideas
  • ‘Connecting the dots’; sharing context, ‘big picture’
  • Inspiring potential/possibilities with ‘next big idea’
  • Weaving scenarios/stories which point to success
  • Pushing ‘the envelope’/boundaries; fighting ‘silos’
  • Transforming a brand; re-inventing the business

Likely Struggles

  • Focus: overwhelmed with too many ideas/options
  • Specifying details; clarifying plans for execution
  • Documenting; following processes or procedures
  • Prioritizing, scheduling, organizing, sequencing
  • Seen as too optimistic, unconventional, risk-taking
If the primary behavior is not enough then this is where Angela likely goes for answers next.


Authentic, Compassionate Servant

Likely Strengths

  • Identifying what matters most in achieving ends
  • Ensuring congruence between words and actions
  • Valuing people; supporting individuals/the team
  • Active listening; expressing sincere appreciation
  • Appraising and guarding group morals & values
  • 1:1 relationships; understanding people in-depth

Likely Struggles

  • Dealing with conflict or lack of trust or respect
  • Asserting oneself; standing firm under pressure
  • Giving and receiving candid, corrective critique
  • Having clear goals, plans, structure & organization
  • Delegating and holding people firmly accountable
Leader Strengths and Struggles Authors
Original work by: Cash Keahey © Step Research Corporation

Problem Solving 04

How you can improve on your
 problem solving and decision making skills.

This describes how you can improve on your problem solving and decision making skills.

HOW Problem Solving is based on the two middle letters in the type code – ST, SF, NT or NF, which are of great importance to focus, motivation and interests when solving problems and making decisions. 

Enthusiastic & Insightful - NF

”Are we solving the right problem?”

Problem Solving Strengths

  • The big picture: Has the overall contexts and values in mind. Insightful. Can often ”feel” when something is not right. Contemplates the long-term consequences and the context into which the solution must fit.
  • Creative: Thrives on big challenges and is creative and innovative. Works well in an unstructured setting. Brings many solutions to the table.
  • Flexible: Is flexible in problem solving – believes there are many ways to solve a problem. Thinks out solutions that are adaptable to new opportunities with a particular focus on strengthening human relations.
  • Values-based: Assigns value and worth to ideas and things. Seeks solutions that create the most meaning and value for people – now and in the long run. Focuses on making the world a better place.
  • Cooperative: Solves tasks well with others. Is enthusiastic and motivates and inspires others to develop their potential.

Problem Solving Development Areas

  • Be realistic: Examine the mundane factors which may be necessary to bring a solution to life, including economic and structural limitations. Be careful not to overlook important details or facts.
  • Use experience: Do not reinvent the wheel every time. Establish if there is experience to draw on. Keep what works well – do not change for the sake of change.
  • Focus: Hold back generating possibilities until you have collected more facts about the task at hand. Include short-term perspectives and what logically makes sense to launch right now. Be careful not to make decisions based solely on personal values and ideals
  • Objective analysis: Make an objective and logical analysis of the task. Remember to include the unpleasant facts. Keep a cool head. Put aside your ideals and concerns for people’s needs for a moment.
Problem Solving Authors
Original work by: Mette Babitzkow Boje Tina Brøndum Kristjánsson © Step Research Corporation

Values Ranking 05

Ranks the likely values from most to least likely being important to this person.

Most likely Angela

More likely Angela

Innovating & Inclusive

  • Opportunity
  • Imagination
  • Novelty
  • Learning
  • Developing Potential
  • Openness
  • Open-mindedness
  • Fairness
  • Diversity
  • Respect for the Individual
  • Internal Harmony
  • Trust
  • Genuineness
  • Well-Being

More likely Angela

Persuasive & Visionary

  • Trust
  • Relationships
  • Tact
  • Passion
  • Commitment
  • Loyalty
  • Group Norms/Protocol
  • Consensus
  • Praise
  • Creativity
  • Intuition
  • Foresight
  • Understanding
  • Images
  • Symbols
  • Ingenuity
  • Complexity
  • Significance

Less likely Angela

Take Charge, Proactive, Independent, or Prudent

  • Structure
  • Goals
  • Plans
  • Objectivity
  • Challenge
  • Candor
  • Decisiveness
  • Achievement
  • Competence
  • Action
  • Variety
  • Urgency
  • Resourcefulness
  • Empowerment
  • Experimentation
  • Efficiency
  • Spontaneity
  • Clarity
  • Logical Reasoning
  • Rational Decisions
  • Order
  • Autonomy
  • Accuracy
  • Critique
  • Consistency
  • Duty
  • Responsibility
  • Security
  • Tradition
  • Caution
  • Dedication
  • Reliability
  • Proven Experience
  • Practicality
Values Ranking Authors
Original work by: Cash Keahey © Step Research Corporation

At Work Guidance 06

This section gives you tips about how to improve interactions with your colleagues, managers and subordinates at work.

This section provides personalized guidance for ten common “at work” scenarios.  This guidance is written to be helpful for both individuals and their managers or colleagues.  For each scenario, this section provides a personalized advisory narrative.  It also includes topics that will be an “Energizer” and “Stressor” for the individual as well as a scenario-related strength and weakness.  Finally, this section includes a personalized tip for the individual on how to perform best in the scenario.

Why it is important: Many people crave personalized guidance and mentoring at work - and this section provides just that in an automated fashion that is available on demand anytime a need arises.  This guidance will help individuals, and their managers, be more effective at work.

Communication At Work Guidance

Talking to their Manager

For Angela, being able to consider the diverse perspectives in the situation and talk with her manager is very empowering. She does well when she feels that her manager is authentically looking for new ideas and is interested in her opinion. Being able to deliver a flood of new ideas and the ability to jump from topic to topic can sometimes overwhelm managers who take a more methodical approach.

Energizer Discussing the future vision Strength Bringing up diverse perspectives
Talking to your manager
Stressor Being told there are no options or limited flexibility Challenge Covering too many topics in discussions with her manager
Tip Angela should work on keeping up with important details

Talking to Colleagues and Staff

Angela is typically great at getting coworkers engaged with the mission and linking their passion to the goals at hand. She tends to bring in many other topics to help make her points and all the wandering around in the conversation can leave others who just want to get working frustrated.

Energizer Talking with colleagues about future ideas Strength Motivating colleagues with the mission
Talking to Colleagues and Staff
Stressor Colleagues who will not brainstorm with her Challenge Wandering over too many topics in the conversation
Tip Angela should not jump around as much in conversations

Difficult Conversations

For Angela, dancing all around related, and even distantly related issues is natural. Her ability to see how different issues are related is typically amazing. This can sometimes result in a disjointed conversation for the other person as Angela jumps from topic to topic.

Energizer Everyone sharing how they feel in a non-judgmental way Strength Coming up with new ideas that might help the situation
Difficult Conversations
Stressor Too much focus on the past Challenge Jumping between problems in a single conversation
Tip Angela should take extra effort to keep the conversation focused

Doing Presentations

Angela is typically a great speaker. While she might frequently stray from the documented presentation Angela is typically good at reading the audience and finding new ways to keep them engaged. Angela generally likes presentations that are about encouraging and motivating other people and can sometimes be frustrated when there are too many restrictions on the presentation.

Energizer Coming up with easy ways to present ideas Strength Motivational presentations that move around quickly
Doing Presentations
Stressor Having to deal with rigid restrictions on the format of the presentation Challenge Presenting logical, detailed processes
Tip Angela should make sure that the presentation follows accepted logic

Managing At Work Guidance

Setting Goals

Angela is probably very comfortable coming up with many options and ideas to use for goals. Her goals are likely to be very self motivating and include activities she enjoys. The part Angela may struggle with is that with all these options she may sometimes struggle to narrow it down.

Energizer Goals which require doing a variety of activities Strength Coming up with lots of goals she is motivated about
Setting Goals
Stressor Goals without fun activities or that require repetition Challenge Choosing the specific goal to chase
Tip Angela should force herself to make a decision and work towards a specific goal

Team Building

Angela is typically good at talking with team members, inspiring them and getting them excited about what they are doing on the team and the future goals. Angela is often good at getting team members passionate about their jobs. This focus on excitement and future possibilities can mean that sometimes Angela is not as good at following up on all the details of team members.

Energizer Talking with team members about their ideas Strength Encouraging team members to be inspired and excited
Team Building
Stressor Team members who do not embrace the future possibilities Challenge Keeping consistency with team activities
Tip Angela should take extra time tracking team member details


Angela is likely to lead by building excitement and enthusiasm by those involved in the mission. She is probably very focused on the future and new ideas. Her focus on ideas and excitement mean that sometimes she doesn't spend as much time as needed on keeping track of details and following up.

Energizer Leading others towards a better future Strength Building excitement and passion for the future mission
Stressor Little in the mission that generates enthusiasm and passion Challenge Following up on details
Tip Angela should take extra time to establish a process for details and follow up


Angela is probably good at encouraging creativity and talking to those she delegates to. She is likely to spend more time on ideas and adapting and less time worrying about small details or creating a detailed plan. For Angela, this can sometimes mean that others needing more stability are frustrated by the frequent changes.

Energizer Talking ideas with the people who have been delegated the task Strength Encouraging creativity and new ideas from the person being delegated to
Stressor Spending time following up on small details Challenge Changing ideas and delegated tasks too frequently
Tip Angela should take care to follow up

Growing At Work Guidance

Time Management

Angela is likely very comfortable in environments with lots of flexibility and change in the schedule. Angela will probably enjoy shifting her focus many times through the day rather than sticking to rigid schedule. Angela may sometimes be so distracted by all the projects that she might not stick to schedules.

Energizer Flexible schedules that provide lots of opportunity to talk with others Strength Being comfortable with changing schedules
Time Management
Stressor Too rigid schedules Challenge Staying on track and on time with schedules
Tip Angela should work to make sure and keep meeting times

Getting Feedback

Angela is likely to be quick to come up with ideas and discuss options for addressing the feedback. Angela will probably respond well to feedback that focuses on what is going right and frames adjustments as not being personal.

Energizer Talking cooperatively through ways to improve things Strength Coming up with creative ideas to address the feedback
Stressor Lots of details and negative criticism Challenge Staying focused on the specific feedback
Tip Angela should be more willing to spend time fully listening to feedback before jumping to solutions
At Work Guidance Authors
Original work by: Sterling Bates Gene Bellotti © Step Research Corporation

Preference Opportunities 07

Key qualities and opportunities for development by preferences

Preference Opportunities

Preference for Extraversion

The opposite is called Introversion

More Likely You:

  • Lively and enthusiastic
  • Makes friends easily
  • Has lots of interests
  • Likes being with people
  • Heaps of energy

Less Likely You:

  • Calm and reflective
  • Takes a while to make good friends
  • Has a few carefully selected special interests
  • Comfortable with time alone
  • Excited on the inside but may not show it

Watch Out! You may need to...

  • Think before speaking
  • Stop talking and let others speak first
  • Value those who are quieter than you
  • Concentrate on listening
  • Learn how to enjoy spending time by yourself

Preference for Intuition

The opposite is called Sensing

More Likely You:

  • Like to be original
  • Enjoys variety
  • Wants to do things the unusual way
  • Likes to set the trend
  • Enjoys learning new skills

Less Likely You:

  • Likes accuracy and detail
  • Enjoys perfecting skills
  • Wants to do things the proper way
  • Likes to follow real examples
  • Enjoys putting ideas into practice

Watch Out! You may need to...

  • Focus some attention on detail
  • Realize some great ideas may not be realistic
  • Recognize when you need to conform
  • Practice perfecting a skill, start with the basics
  • Remember to enjoy the present moment

Preference for Feeling

The opposite is called Thinking

More Likely You:

  • Enjoys being friendly and caring
  • Needs to make sure everyone is happy
  • Likes helping people
  • Good decisions always “feel right”
  • Needs to feel cared for and appreciated

Less Likely You:

  • Needs to make sure things are fair
  • Wants abilities to measured
  • Likes to solve problems
  • Thinks things through logically
  • It's important to become competent

Watch Out! You may need to...

  • Stop taking things so personally
  • Accept criticism and move on
  • Think independently - don't be pressured by peers
  • Look after your own needs as well as others
  • Realize you can't keep everyone happy all the time

Preference for Perceiving

The opposite is called Judging

More Likely You:

  • Welcome change
  • Likes to have freedom to choose
  • Likes to leave plans open and flexible
  • Always curious
  • Prefers casual to formal

Less Likely You:

  • Enjoys routines
  • Control stress by being organized
  • Likes to get things finished
  • Feels good when things are running to plan
  • Works best with lists

Watch Out! You may need to...

  • Learn that sometimes the deadline is real
  • Realize that sometimes a decision can't wait
  • Practice estimating how long things take
  • Learn to cope with structure and routine
  • Just do it!

Preference Opportunities Authors
Original work by: Sue Blair © Step Research Corporation

Preference Development 08

These describe various activities and exercises for your development.

This section describes various activities and exercises that can be used to strengthen the ability to consciously use the mental skills related to each preference.

You have the capability of building skills related to your natural preferences – the ones you have in your type code – as well as the preferences you do not have in your type code. Most people have, through their lives, naturally built skills in the areas their preferences have drawn them towards. More often, it is therefore the preferences they do not have in their type code where training would be beneficial.

Once you have developed skills within all eight preferences, you can more easily choose the behaviour that is most appropriate in any given situation. Thus, you will expand your "behavioural toolbox" as well as find that the use of a trained preference does not require as much energy.

Preference for Extraversion

The opposite is called Introversion

Your Strengths:

  • Energised by the outer world
  • Talk, think, talk
  • Action
  • Breadth

This means you typically look like this to other people:

  • Talk a lot – and often loud and fast. Respond quickly.
  • Process out loud so others tend to know what they are thinking. Develop ideas through discussion.
  • Interrupt when you are speaking – seem eager or impatient.
  • Discuss a variety of subjects at the same time and move quickly from one topic to the next.
  • Pay attention to the external world – get distracted easily.
  • Use body language, gesticulate and share their energy outwardly.
  • Take initiative in making contact with other people – use eye contact, small talk, often start a conversation.
  • Push to get started right away – action oriented. Do not need much reflection time. “Shoot from the hip”.
  • Contribute enthusiastically when working in groups. Want to learn new tasks by talking and doing.
  • Have a broad social network and a variety of interests.
  • Do not seem to mind interruptions when working.
  • Prefer spoken communication rather than written communication when they are free to choose.

This means your opposite typically looks like this to other people:

  • Listen more than they talk – and often speak calmly. Talk more in one-on-one situations.
  • Process internally – when talking, they most often only convey the essence/conclusion of their chain of thought.
  • Pause in the conversation – and shut down if you interrupt them. May seem withholding.
  • Talk in-depth about one subject before moving to the next.
  • Sustain concentration and focus for long, and they may seem like they are in their own world.
  • Calm body language – seem reserved.
  • Limit social interaction with other people to what is “necessary”.
  • Seem cautious and hesitant – they need time to reflect before acting.
  • Enjoy working alone and like quiet surroundings. Want to learn new tasks by reading and reflecting.
  • Have few but close relationships and explore interests in-depth.
  • Seem to be disturbed by interruptions when working
  • Prefer written communication rather than spoken communication when they are free to choose.

Areas for development that are typical challenges:


    Ways to develop:

    “Listen-more-day” – Plan a “listen-more-day”. Reflect. Say only something when necessary. Give others time to answer and find peace in silence. Pause at least ten seconds longer than you normally would before you say something. Note what happens with the dynamics in the conversation.
    Do not interrupt – For one day focus on not interrupting. Let people finish talking. Do not interrupt in the middle of an argument. Stop yourself if you accidently do it anyway. Get feedback from other people on how being interrupted affects them.
    Listen to understand – Pick out a planned conversation. Listen to what the other person is saying. Practice staying attentive to his or her inputs rather than thinking of what you will say in response. Listen to the other person's point of view and describe what you heard before you allow yourself to talk about your perception and point of view.


    Ways to develop:

    Find peace of mind – Take lessons in meditation, breathing techniques or mindfulness. Practice. Set aside time each day or week to visit your inner world. Learn to feel comfortable in your own thoughts and feelings.
    Spend time alone – Say “no” to a social activity or event you would normally say yes to. Make a list of things you like doing alone and do this instead. If you need inspiration, ask a friend who prefers I.
    Clarify thoughts alone – Reflect on the importance of an experience or an event by yourself. Contemplate impressions by yourself. Make an important decision alone. Practice clarifying your thought without speaking to others.


    Ways to develop:

    Seek depth in conversation – Pick out a person at a social event and talk in depth about a subject one-on-one. Everyone has something they are better at than you or an interest in something you do not know about. Find out what it is and let them be the ones that talk the most.
    Examine in dept – Identify various subjects that interest you. Instead of breadth go into depth with one of the subjects. Allow more time than you think is necessary. Be patient and "look for the nuances."
    Create a framework for focus – Pick out a task to work on alone. Find a quiet place where you will not be disturbed. Plan your breaks and stick to them. Control your craving for variation. If you feel the urge to talk, talk to yourself.


    Ways to develop:

    Communicate in writing – Resist the temptation to choose verbal communication just because it is possible. Pick out three situations during the coming week where you would normally meet with or call a person and communicate in writing instead.
    Think before you speak – Think through what you want to say and what your opinion is before you start talking. Consider writing down your thoughts, summarise and only convey the “essence” of what needs to be said.
    Reflect before acting – Do not accept or engage in activities you would normally throw yourself into. Turn your thoughts inward and reflect whether it is the right thing to do as well as whether it is the right time and place.

Preference for Intuition

The opposite is called Sensing

Your Strengths:

  • Future
  • The big picture
  • Visionary
  • The sixth sense

This means you typically look like this to other people:

  • Talk about opportunities, new ideas, concepts, patterns, visions and coherences – “what could be”.
  • Present the big picture first. Talk in general and abstract terms – use metaphors and speak figuratively.
  • Refer to things as being “intuitively correct” or that something “could theoretically work”.
  • Ask for the underlying ”meaning” and the context of an issue. The overall purpose.
  • Appear to lose interest if too many details are presented in a story.
  • Often say “Imagine that…”. Point out if something is unambitious and want to think big.
  • Begin their story at the end and articulate the totality, skip around easily in the story and may miss some parts. Intuitive hunches.
  • Interested in new ideas and new solutions – because they are new. Talk about changing things – not just improving them.
  • Quickly become enthusiastic about a new idea. Trust their intuition and theories.
  • Seem reluctant to do the same thing twice and follow a routine unless they have to – prefer to do it in a new way.
  • Seem more engaged when a task requires a new and creative approach.
  • Do not ask for instructions when assigned a new task – want to solve it in their own way

This means your opposite typically looks like this to other people:

  • Talk about real life, people they know, things that have happened or will happen, the here and now – ”what is”.
  • Present the facts first. Talk in precise terms, use detailed descriptions, similes. Have a straightforward speech pattern. Speak literally.
  • Refer to common sense and experience and what is feasible.
  • Ask about the facts and details of a case/situation.
  • Appear to lose interest if it gets too hypothetical and airy fairy.
  • Down-to-earth. Point out if something is unpractical or unrealistic.
  • Start their story at the beginning and build it in a linear fashion, step by step. Explain in detail.
  • Seek practical and efficient solutions. Talk about improving things – not changing them.
  • Unlikely to embrace new ideas unless they are grounded in reality – they will ask questions about ”how”. Trust tangible data and facts.
  • Seem reluctant to change the tried and tested unless it is necessary – refer to what works.
  • Seem more engaged when a task requires skills already learned.
  • Ask about “what” and “how” when assigned a new task – would like to know the established way before deciding how to tackle it.

Areas for development that are typical challenges:


    Ways to develop:

    "Sensing-day" – Plan a "sensing-day". Use your five senses for a whole day and focus on the real, the tangible, the observable. Note the details of real life. Be present in the moment and not in the future.
    Stick to the issue – Pick out three conversations you have planned. During the conversation, focus 100% on the subject you are discussing. Push away any associations and do not interpret and “read between the lines”.
    Facts – Read a short article or a memo, or ask a person who prefers S to tell you a story. Afterwards, write down the facts that were given. Crosscheck to see how accurate you were in retaining facts and not making inferences about the facts.


    Ways to develop:

    Focus on the details – Proofread this card (or something else) in detail. Read from the the bottom to the top, right to left, word by word. (Did you spot the error in the second line?)
    Practice the details – Buy a big puzzle and use at least 20 minutes a day to put it together. Or develop a hobby that requires attention to detail such as knitting from a given pattern, cooking following the recipe closely or painting by numbers.
    Follow the instructions – Practice reading and following step by step instructions. Follow an instruction manual at work, install and learn a new computer program or assemble a piece of LEGO or a piece of furniture from IKEA. Do things in the way shown in the instructions. Resist the urge to do it your own way or jump around.


    Ways to develop:

    Be realistic – Brainstorm and write down your ten best ideas. Pick out two or three ideas and write down how they could be implemented. Use facts to support the usefulness of the ideas. Are they realistic? Introduce the ideas to a person who prefers S. Request feedback.
    Be concrete – Tell someone a story or tell about your day at work. Tell in a straightforward way what happened and communicate chronologically and in detail. Use literally concrete words. Avoid metaphors. If you use a figurative statement, convert it to a literal statement.
    Task breakdown – Pick out a big task and break it down into small tasks. Write down. Make each task specific, actionable and in succession. Estimate how long time each task will take. Start from the beginning and finish each task before moving on to the next.


    Ways to develop:

    Resist the urge for change – Next time you notice something that needs changing, write down what is currently working. Avoid changes and "improvements" if there is no compelling reason to initiate them. Focus on only changing what is necessary.
    Use routines – Make a note of what you do in the morning before leaving for work. How much of this is routine? Does having a routine make the mornings less complicated? Write down three different activities you do every day where implementing a routine would make life easier. Implement.
    Use experience – Pick out a task or assignment to be performed at work or at home. Resist the urge to do it in a new and different way. Examine carefully how you or others have solved similar tasks before. Identify the hands-on experience that might be and apply the proven method. Reflect on the efficiency.

Preference for Feeling

The opposite is called Thinking

Your Strengths:

  • Values
  • People centred
  • Harmony
  • Compassion

This means you typically look like this to other people:

  • Highlight areas of agreement. Try to establish harmony and concensus.
  • Often avoid conflicts, withdraw from discussions or try to “smooth things out”. May become uncharacteristically direct if values are violated.
  • Seem uncomfortable pointing out errors and receiving critical feedback. May seem touchy and take things personally.
  • Naturally tuned in to people’s feelings and soften their language.
  • Want to know and understand personal standpoints. Cooperate rather than compete.
  • Accept decisions based on values and personal motivations.
  • Focus on people. Help people by showing concern for their needs.
  • Argue for what they believe is ”right or wrong” and what is ”good or bad”.
  • Talk about the “best solution” for the people involved and refer to core values.
  • Give compliments and express their appreciation to others easily. Often give praise – both for results and effort.
  • Use values and the needs of other people as a foundation for their opinions. Distrust decisions based solely on “cold insensitive logic”.
  • Seem accommodating and empathic (and may sometimes seem evasive and soft).

This means your opposite typically looks like this to other people:

  • Tend to first notice and deal with points of disagreement. Go “head on”. Focus on efficiency.
  • Comfortable with arguing and have no hard feelings afterwards.
  • Generally quick to tell others where they need to improve. Are “totally truthful” and may forget the diplomat.
  • Direct when communicating and may seem tough-minded and critical.
  • Assess others’ competence by asking challenging questions. Seem to like competition.
  • Ask ”why” and search for logical coherence. May unwittingly hurt the feelings of others.
  • Focus on problem solving. Offer objective advice to help. ”Mr. Fix-it.”
  • Argue for what they believe is logical – and often present a lot of arguments.
  • Talk about the objectively speaking ”right solution” and refer to analyses, the pros and cons, fairness and consistency.
  • Ungenerous with their compliments. Recognise results but rarely praise effort.
  • Use objective principles and a logic-centred approach as a foundation for their opinions. Distrust decisions based solely on “illogical feelings”.
  • Seem task centred and business-like (and may sometimes seem cold and impersonal).

Areas for development that are typical challenges:


    Ways to develop:

    "Direct-speech day" – Plan a "direct-speech day" where you practice expressing yourself clearly about what you want. Avoid sugarcoating. Stand firm, even though others might disagree.
    Map your communication style – Identify situations through your life where your communication style has been too indirect and led to confusion and irritation. Consider how you can minimise the negative impact of your communication style in the future. Practice.
    Give critical feedback – Next time someone presents you with a possible solution to a problem, tell them which problems and flaws you see. Communicate clearly – do not apologise. Remind yourself that people can recover from hurt feelings, and that a bad decision or a task solved poorly can be much more harmful to them.


    Ways to develop:

    Be objective – Review a problem you have. Analyse to determine the cause of the problem and think of four possible ways you could take to solve the problem. List the consequences of each course of action. What are the pros and cons? Is the decision consistent with past decisions, and is it a reasonable precedent to set for future decisions?
    Articulate "why" – Identify three decisions you have made recently. Logic shows the relationship between premises and conclusions – were the decisions logical? Analyse. Practice articulating "why" with focus on the underlying premises.
    Uncover the logic – Pick out a conversation with others about an important topic/decision – focus on determining the underlying premises that are driving their reasoning. Ask questions until you find the arguments and conclusions are logically related.


    Ways to develop:

    Standard answers – Define three standard answers you can use in situations where you find it hard to say no. For example "That date sounds familiar. I need to check my calendar and get back to you." This gives you time to "prepare" your no.
    Debate with yourself – Identify three situations in which you failed to draw the line – where you said yes instead of no. What were your thoughts and feelings? Write down what you were afraid would happen if you said no. Is there an objective reason for thinking that would happen?
    Say no – Identify three typical situations where you find it hard to say no to others. Agree with yourself to say no the next time they occur – even though others may be disappointed. Accept the discomfort. Note how the other person reacts. If possible, request the other person's feedback on your "no".


    Ways to develop:

    Take yourself out of the equation – Identify an episode where you felt offended by something someone said to you. Consider which underlying premises may serve as a logical explanation for the remarks. Note how this review of the premises can change your emotional response to the episode.
    Ask for objective feedback – Request objective feedback on a task you have solved. Prepare for critique. Listen with an open mind. Ask clarifying questions and ask for examples. Consider soberly what you want to do with the feedback. Could it actually make your problem solving better?
    Compartmentalise – Think of the methods you use to separate a problem in your personal life from your work life (or the other way around). Apply those methods to other components of your life. Does it make life easier by logically compartmentalising parts of your life from each other?

Preference for Perceiving

The opposite is called Judging

Your Strengths:

  • Freedom
  • Process
  • Flexibility
  • Just in time

This means you typically look like this to other people:

  • Combine work and play – seem open and informal.
  • Flexible and sometimes inattentive when it comes to time, meetings and tasks. Usually see organising as unnecessary and limiting.
  • Do not make many plans and deviate from the ones they do make – reopen agreements and decisions. Are good at adapting.
  • Articulate frustration about rigid structures and too many rules and regulations. Seek freedom and flexibility in order to be able to take advantage of unexpected opportunities.
  • Postpone decisions for as long as possible. “It’s ages from now.”
  • Are most enthusiastic at the beginning of a project and want to try out several different approaches.
  • When asked for their opinion, they will typically delay offering an opinion and will ask questions to get more information.
  • Tend to make statements that end with a question mark – indicating their open-ended approach to life? Easily change their mind.
  • Do not ”organise” work and living spaces. Leave things in the open so they can easily find them.
  • Appear as if they have lots of time, go with the flow, relaxed.
  • Often wait until the deadline gets closer to work on a task. Often say they work more efficiently under time pressure.
  • Time optimists – do not always arrive on time and deliver just in time.

This means your opposite typically looks like this to other people:

  • Have a clear distinction between work and play – seem serious and decisive.
  • Organised. Use lists, a calendar and systems to keep track of time, meetings, tasks and appointments (and take pleasure in using them).
  • Set goals, make plans and follow them. Express resentment about changing a plan or a decision.
  • Articulate frustration when experiencing too many ”loose ends”. Want predictability and matters settled.
  • Prefer to make decisions quickly – and want others to do the same. ”We might as well make a decision now.”
  • Most enthusiastic in the completion phase of a project.
  • When asked for their opinion, they will typically answer quickly – often without asking clarifying questions.
  • Tend to make statements that end with an exclamation mark! Do not easily change their mind.
  • Have visibly organised work and living spaces. Put things away so they can easily find them.
  • Seem in a hurry – walk fast and focus on being effective.
  • Work at a steady pace until the submission of assignments.
  • Arrive on time and deliver on time – or sooner – and expect that others do the same.

Areas for development that are typical challenges:


    Ways to develop:

    Get it under control – Manage your tasks, appointments and obligations. Write everything down in your calendar and create a to do list. Set as a goal for the coming week to arrive at meetings and deliver input in good time. Begin working on your tasks right away. Do not postpone.
    Schedule – Make a plan for the next day before leaving work. What would you like to achieve? Write it down. Estimate how long time each task will take and make an order of priority. Develop a plan for the coming week. Estimate. Prioritise. Follow the plan. Evaluate by the end of the week what went well and what can be done better. What are the benefits of planning?
    Get tools – Take a training course on personal effectiveness. Learn the basic planning tools. Integrate them into your life in a way that fits your lifestyle.


    Ways to develop:

    Follow the rules – Sharpen your awareness of rules/procedures. Follow the rules for a week – in all aspects. Stay within the limits. If you want to do something that is not in accordance with the rules, ask for permission – not forgiveness.
    Ask for feedback – Ask your family, colleagues and friends how it affects them when you are oblivious about time or agreements or are always working close to the deadline. Do they have concrete examples? What impression does it make on you?
    Tidy up – Plan a tidy-up day at home and at work. Tidy up your home and your office following the motto "Everything has to stay in its own place!". Create order. Organise so it is easy to find things.


    Ways to develop:

    "Focus-day" – Plan a "focus-day". Complete all the tasks you have decided on getting done one at a time. Do not jump around by working on several tasks at the same time. Every time you think "There is plenty of time to ..." stop and reflect if you do actually have the time. Practice being a time realist.
    Complete the task in good time – Pick out a major task. Finish the work at least four hours ahead of the deadline, then come back after two hours to see if you can improve it.
    Sow before you reap – Adhere to the saying "you have to sow, before you can reap." For a week, force yourself to get all duties done. "Work before play". What are the benefits?


    Ways to develop:

    "J-day" – Plan a "J-day". Practice forming an opinion swiftly about absolutely everything – anytime and anywhere. Write down pros and cons of rapid decision making and eliminating uncertainty.
    Be decisive – Make three decisions during the week as swiftly as possible. Do not postpone the decision to see if something else comes up, or because you want to explore something a little more. Decide on the basis of the available information (if you want to go to the conference, the meeting, the party, which option you like the best, etc.).
    Resist the urge to reopen – The next time you want to reopen a decision already made, resist. Instead write down three good reasons why your decision was right.

Preference Development Authors
Original work by: Mette Babitzkow Boje Tina Brøndum Kristjánsson © Step Research Corporation